Urologists are medical doctors who deal with conditions of the urinary tract, kidneys, and adrenal glands. These parts of the body are connected to the female and male reproductive systems. Genitourinary diseases include symptoms and conditions that affect either of these parts of the body. For these conditions, it is important to visit a urologist for medical treatment. The NewYork-Presbyterian Health System has a comprehensive urology program and a world-class group of urologists. These physicians are ranked in more "Best Doctors" lists than any other hospital system. The urologists practicing at the treatment centers are internationally recognized, and they routinely provide cutting-edge treatment and therapies. Urologists may perform a variety of tests to determine what's causing a patient's symptoms. For example, they may order a post-void residual urine test to determine how much urine has been expelled from the body after urination. Other tests may include measuring the volume and pressure inside the bladder. If the symptoms do not improve, the primary care doctor can refer the patient to a urologist. Urologists typically specialize in treating a variety of urologic diseases. They also perform surgery. To become a urologist, a person must have a bachelor's degree in medicine or a graduate degree in a medical field. The educational process usually lasts four years and consists of training in medical school and residency. During residency, urologists learn the medical and surgical skills of treating urologic diseases. Many urologists also pursue additional training, called fellowships. Fellowships can last from one to three years.